Talossan suffixes are added to “stems” of words, which are determined according to the following rules.
- If the suffix begins with a consonant (for example, -cada), the full word is the stem.
- Otherwise, if the word ends in…
- a consonant, or in the stressed ending -éu, the full word itself is the stem (for example: päts, naziun, traval, çéu).
- a stressed vowel (for example, pà, itrì, comunistà), the stem is formed by adding the letter -n (making pan-, itrin-, comunistan-).
- an unstressed vowel or vowels, the stem is formed by removing that vowel or those vowels (for example, the stem of gascota is gascot-, that of óspila is óspil-). Note cases when the letters i and u are pronounced as consonants; in these cases, they are not removed from a stem (for example, the stem of doua is dou- and that of ziua is ziu-). Also, in words ending in -ia (or -ía) the -i- is retained (for example, the stem of leituría is leituri-).
Some common Talossan suffixes are listed below with their English meanings:
When a number is suffixed, it often retains its full value (that is, the full word is the stem), or takes a slightly modified form. This is seen in the examples dueta, douaplicarh, and quartet, below.
- -aina is used to form a collective noun [dudeschaina is a group of twelve, tresaina is a threesome]
- -et, having the feminine form -eta is used to indicate group of people [quartet is a quartet, dueta is a duet of females]
- -föld is used like the English suffix -fold, increase [tresföld is threefold, sexföld is six-fold]
- -plet is used to indicate a number of siblings [douaplet is a twin, tresplet a triplet, and viensplet is an only-begotten]
- -plicarh forms a verb meaning multiplication [douaplicarh is to double, tresplicarh is to triple]